And with respect to the design of the current course:
"After the plan was approved, construction began in earnest in mid-February 1920. In March it was halted because the Water Co. now insisted that SFGC, which to this point was leasing the land, buy it. It would take until the beginning of 1922 for this to take place. At that time, Roger Lapham, who had brought Tilly out for the original design, was on the East coast overseeing the planning and running of that year's U.S. Open. While he was gone, a group of strong-minded and influential members convinced the Board to let them redesign the course and build it as this would save a great deal of money that they didn't have at the moment. After this redesign failed, Tillinghast was brought back out in March 1924. It was at that time that the current course was designed and built. It opened for play at the beginning of 1925."
The history of evolution of SFGC is covered in a Tillinghast Illustrated piece from the Tillinghast Association that can be found here: http://www.tillinghast.net/Tillinghast/Tillinghast_Illustrated_files/TIfor%20web.pdf
As Phil noted, all of this is covered in great detail in the soon to be printed San Francisco Golf Club club history that he has just finished.