Jerry Lemons, ASGCA did a nice graphic on this that you can Google and find a copy. I always found it to be accurate based on my experience. I'm not sure how the graphic will show up, but I include it. I tended to make sure my steepest slope was somewhere in the yellow range. Being in the south, with overseeding slowly losing acceptance, I made sure there were at least a few pin areas in the green because winter green speeds can get to 14+ easily.
I'm assuming this is the graphic? Interesting, yes, this does seem to be a pretty basic rule of thumb.
if you are creative with counterslopes, it's possible to reward the player who finds the less obvious line for his putt.Yes, it seems like the graph doesn't fully show the relationship between acceleration and friction. I would assume that you could create local minima on the greens that allow for extremely high speed puts to still remain in play. I guess the main issue would be how to drain the local minima... and working out the math to make sure that all the directions of putting are reasonable. Putting across multiple swales is an obvious use case for roller coaster putts. I definitely feel those types of greens could feel gimmicky, but I think something like a short par 3 into a wide, Himalayas-style putting surfaces could be a fun way to make an easy par 3 very challenging.
That is the chart, but it's in degrees. If you use it, make sure everyone knows that. There is also one in % of slope, which I found easier to use.
As to the friction and acceleration, you guys kill me, just like when someone thought Lou Stagner's 33,000 shot sample size was too small. I suppose it doesn't measure that, but it does measure at what green speed putts just don't stop.
I have seen Fazio and others do counterslopes and flatter cup areas where other contours are steeper. Most architects will put a small rise on the front of a green that has two tiers to prevent or eliminate de-greening from the upper level.
In the end, most situations don't call for a counterslope. So what if they stop putts somewhere past the hole? Most golfers would prefer a contour that allows them to stop their first putt near the hole, not having to putt 20 feet back, i.e., they are good as an exception, but maybe not the general rule. Course managers probably prefer it to, rather than a design that rewards 0.1% of players who can "find a creative line" anywhere other than a course designed for tournaments or an out of the way resort experience.
I did find the chart to be reliable. At a club with daily green speeds of 13, I asked what the problem cup areas were. In that case, every one the members complained about exceeded the yellow area on the chart. What it does show, IMHO, is that cup area slopes can be up to about 3.75%, not the standard quoted 3%, although 3% does give you a safety factor.