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In the USGA Open setup philosophy a missed green is expected to "cost" the player approximately 1/3 of a shot(on the average if a player gets in the high collar rough, or in a Pinehurst type setup, in a chipping area to an elevated green, a recovery rate of 2 out of 3)--In that type of setup perfect lies in bunkers(which are designed as the hazards to avoid) the recovery rate is usually much higher--
If a bunker becomes too penal, then players will cease to challenge them. They will merely play away from them. As soon as that happens, then strategy ceases to exist.