The heads only work in a limited pressure range of 70-90 PSI in most cases, with minor variations, and optimum in the middle range. In essence, thats what the various nozzles do, with bigger nozzles throwing further, with more gallonage, and slightly different pressure. Pressure affects the waters ability to fight wind, droplet size, eveness of coverage and a whole lot of other things, and should be varied too much.
As far as changing the pressure at each head on a green, pressure is a function of initial pressure at the pump station (usually 120-125PSI on golf course systems so the end pressure is close to the optimum 80PSI) length of piping from the pump station - so the extra 80 feet to the next head is miniscule compared to the two miles its flowed to get in the general vicinity - and elevation change, again, with miniscule differences around the green, even at a Stitwell Park MacKenzie green, compared to the total elevation change on a golf course.
Spacing for even coverage in all winds is the consistency design tool. Individual head control (early systems grouped heads to run together) and run times are the tools for acheiving variety in application amounts when necessary due to shade, subsurface conditions, hilltops or valleys, etc.