We-Ko-Pa Golf Club (Saguaro Course)
Arizona, United States of America

The Sagauro Course at We-Ko-Pa offers the best of both worlds: Traditional, walking friendly golf found in a captivating desert setting free of outside disturbances. Above is a view from the 255 yard fifteenth tee with the Verde River and Superstition Mountains in the background.

The Sagauro Course at We-Ko-Pa offers the best of both worlds: Traditional, walking friendly golf found in a captivating desert setting free of outside disturbances. Above is a view from the 255 yard fifteenth tee with the Verde River and Superstition Mountains in the background.

How does one follow a highly successful golf course?

Scott Miller, a Jack Nicklaus protégé, built the Cholla Course at We-Ko-Pa in 2001 on land owned by the Yavapai Indians of Fort McDowell. From the onset it was a success, ranked among the top 25 resort courses in the United States by the Wall Street Journal, and tee times were scarce as the surrounding resorts and casino provided an unending flow of golfers.

Over 7,200 yards long, Cholla was a big course in every respect and occupied nearly 250 acres. Still, the Yavapai had set aside an 800 acre (!) envelope of land in the beautiful Sonoran desert and intended it only for golf. Clearly, a second course made sense for the We-Ko-Pa Golf Club. Yet, who would build it? Should they hire Miller again?

Those were the questions facing the Tribal Council and Ed Francese in 2005. Francese, as the Saguaro project manager and head of the managing entity for We-Ko-Pa Golf Club, thought that visitors would appreciate variety. To that end, he decided to interview other architects and eventually narrowed the choice to two golf architectural firms known for minimal land disturbance, namely Tom Doak’s Renaissance Design and Coore & Crenshaw. Among modern architects, these two firms have built the most courses ranked in the world top 100 by GOLF Magazine.

Ultimately, the decision became rather straightforward. Renaissance’s Jim Urbina visited the site but the timing was awkward as they had three projects afoot. On the other hand, Bill Coore and his wife lived only forty minutes away, a sure sign that he appreciated the Sonoran desert and understood this part of the world. Plus, Coore made it clear that he saw great potential, noting: ‘The land had very appealing movement throughout and we couldn’t have hoped for more than what we were given.’ As they had done at nearby Talking Stick, he was confident that their design would provide something calm and soothing to the senses even though the golf would be laid across a hostile desert environment. Their creation would be his and Ben’s interpretation of ‘interesting golf’ in the desert.

The Tribal Council accepted Francese’s recommendation to employ Coore & Crenshaw. Bill Coore then did what he does best: Wander alone day after day among the nearly four hundred acres that were at his disposal. After a month, Francese began to notice more and more colored ribbons scattered about the site. In this day when architects have so much technology at their disposal one might presume this the work of vandals instead of low-tech Bill Coore!

Any property offers countless permutations and after sixty days of ambling about, Bill Coore and Ben Crenshaw produced three routings for Francese and the Tribal Nation to consider. Off they went to walk them, discussing the pros and cons of each. Ultimately, they picked today’s routing because of its set of par threes. They each liked how the four holes headed in different directions and thought that collectively they were the most varied.

We-Ko-Pa stands for Four Peaks. This sacred mountain is seen throughout one’s round though it is 20 miles away.

We-Ko-Pa stands for Four Peaks. This sacred mountain is seen throughout one’s round though it is 20 miles away.

Coore & Crenshaw’s talented crew descended on the project and clearing began in November 2005. Dave Axland made several early site visits and Dave Zinkand arrived shortly after the project started to serve as the on-site  job superintendent until the grassing began. Jimbo Wright and Jim Craig did much of the shaping (primarily the green complexes) and Jeff Bradley did all the bunker work.  Bill’s long time friend and fellow architect Rod Whitman from Canada finished the majority of the tee boxes. Marvin Mills designed and field staked all irrigation and Landscapes Unlimited had the construction contract for about 80% of the job.  Clay Featherby was their superintendent on site.  The Saguaro Course’s Green Keeper Ryan Kreizenbeck and a couple of his crew members assisted in the clearing. Kreizenbeck and Francese had the responsibility for installing and completing all desert re-vegetation, grassing and grow-in.

The Saguaro Course opened for play December 14th 2006 and Francese got what he wanted: A layout that would compliment the original and provide golfers with an appealing yet different option. The Miller course because it was largely routed up and down drainage required elevated fairways and over 600,000 cubic yards of earth movement. It features some spectacular elements but requires a golf cart to get around. Conversely, the Coore & Crenshaw moved only 42,000 cubic yards of dirt so that many fairways bleed into the desert floor. Their holes in general are routed cross drain. Best yet, the Coore & Crenshaw was eminently walkable.

During the routing process, Coore kept exploring a canyon behind what became the sixteenth green. The deeper he ventured, the more severe the land became. Though it offered drama that comes with elevation change, Coore ultimately rejected this portion of the property because it would render walking the course impractical. As is their want, Coore & Crenshaw delivered a traditional approach to golf even though the setting was the high desert.

The Saguaro Course measures 6,966 yards. In a welcome show of common sense, Coore & Crenshaw refrained from building a set of tees beyond 7,000 yards. Why create markers that so few would play?! As it is, a healthy 20% of players avail themselves of the ‘tips’ but an even greater percentage of customers play from the 6,603 yard set, so those are the yardages noted below.

Holes to Note

First hole, 445 yards; Theory has it that a first hole should be a reflection of what the golfer will see the rest of the round. Yet, if every designer followed set ‘rules’, how boring golf would be! Yes, the grassed tee areas are free form and flow downhill from one set to the next. Yes, this hole has a broad ninety yard (!) wide corridor of maintained grass from side to side. Yes, the green is only bunkered on one side with short grass on the other. In those three important regards, the first is like many other holes at We-Ko-Pa. However, in one important element, the first hole is quite different because a twenty yard wide wash crosses the fairway eighty yards short of the green. Every other hole offers uninterrupted short grass from the start of the fairway through the green, which is in sharp contrast to most desert courses. Coore & Crenshaw have long loathed forced carries except from a tee where every golfer is guaranteed a perfect lie and stance. Forced carries into greens require skills that many golfers lack and limit those that can enjoy the challenge so Coore & Crenshaw meticulously avoid them. This hole is the sole exception – and the course is all the better for the variety that it adds. Coore & Crenshaw would have preferred that the wash not come at the opener but they were also convinced that this configuration represented the best flow of holes.

Unusual for the desert, note how the tee grounds roll down. This recurs at other elevated tees including the second, eighth, tenth, eleventh, fourteenth, fifteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth.

Unusual for the desert, note how the tee grounds roll down. This recurs at other elevated tees including the second, eighth, tenth, eleventh, fourteenth, fifteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth.

 

As seen in an early morning December light, the first fairway is vast, measuring over seventy yards from side to side. There is no reason to miss it which is good because ...

As seen in an early morning December light, the first fairway is vast, measuring over seventy yards from side to side. There is no reason to miss it which is good because …

 

... one's second shot needs to carry this wash. The green complex beyond features a hazard on one side and short grass on the other. However, don't be fooled into thinking that left represents the easier up and down. As frequently found at Royal Melbourne, the putting surface tilts toward the hazard, making recoveries from the short grass more ticklish than one initially suspects.

… one’s second shot needs to carry this wash. The green complex beyond features a hazard on one side and short grass on the other. However, don’t be fooled into thinking that left represents the easier up and down. As frequently found at Royal Melbourne, the putting surface tilts toward the hazard, making recoveries from the short grass more ticklish than one initially suspects.


Second hole, 300 yards;
The Saguaro Course features more short two shot holes (here, the seventh, tenth and sixteenth) than any other Coore & Crenshaw design with which the author is familiar. Evenly spread throughout the round, they each measure under 340 yards from the back markers and pose a remarkably different challenge. The second is routed sidehill, the seventh features a blind drive up a hill where central hazards await, the tenth is downhill with everything in sight, and the sixteenth features the sharpest climb on the course.

Routed sidehill, the second fairway is full of little ripples and small undulations of the sort that require the golfer to make slight adjustments to his stance/set-up. Such minor random movement is ideal for golf and is only achieved when man's hand is soft upon the land. Ahead, Coore & Crenshaw created a particularly fine deep green by proping up the back half. Minimalism doesn't mean moving minimal dirt - it means moving it in a manner that is indiscernible to the eye while creating good golf. This green exemplifies the merit of that philosophy.

Routed sidehill, the second fairway is full of little ripples and small undulations of the sort that require the golfer to make slight adjustments to his stance/set-up. Such minor random movement is ideal for golf and is only achieved when man’s hand is soft upon the land. Ahead, Coore & Crenshaw created a particularly fine deep green by proping up the back half. Minimalism doesn’t mean moving minimal dirt – it means moving it in a manner that is indiscernible to the eye while creating good golf. This green exemplifies the merit of that philosophy.


Fourth hole, 610 yards;
This hole features a central hazard, something that the author has always thought was wanting at another famous 600 yard hole, the fifteenth at Pine Valley. At Saguaro, it punctuates the fairway 235 yards from the tee and without it, the tee shot to the wide flat fairway would lack interest. Ahead, the fairway tumbles downhill and pivots left around a handsome bunker.  The ideal play is to hug this bunker for the sake of gaining the optimal angle into the green. Not immediately evident from the fairway is the sharp embankment left of the green that leaves pulled shots lifeless on the inhospitable desert floor below.

A lengthy three shotter, the golfer does himself a favor by taking the short way home by squeezing his drive between the bunker left and central hazard right.

A lengthy three shotter, the golfer does himself a favor by taking the short way home by squeezing his drive between the bunker left and central hazard right.

The fourth fairway drops thirty feet and swings left around ...

The fourth fairway drops thirty feet and swings left around …

... a formalized bunker that emerges from the desert floor. The bunker sand was dredged from the nearby Verde River and washed to meet We-Ko-Pa's specifications.

… a formalized bunker that emerges from the desert floor. The bunker sand was dredged from the nearby Verde River and washed to meet We-Ko-Pa’s specifications.


Fifth hole, 160 yards;
The very nature of desert golf – maintained playing areas surrounded by cacti, sand and rock – is penal by nature. That’s good (the thinking architect doesn’t have to work hard to create hazards of interest) and bad (the casual player can be overwhelmed if the architect doesn’t temper the environmental challenge). Considered restraint is required for a successful desert resort course and that is an attribute that is, alas, patently lacking in many modern architects. The greens at We-Ko-Pa fit the bill though as they possess plenty of character without being overdone.

Many of the Saguaro greens feature broad slopes but the fifth hole is distinguished by its interior contours.

Many of the Saguaro greens feature broad slopes but the fifth hole is distinguished by its interior contours.


Sixth hole, 405 yards;
Coore & Crenshaw’s gentle touch on the land is highlighted tee to green here by embracing the uphill nature of the hole by eschewing building up tee pads and by not making a cut in the far hill. At the bunkerless green site, the putting surface sits majestically at grade to its surrounds. Man-made contrivances are at a bare minimum and the hole’s quiet, natural appearance resonates composure.

 

Note how the fairway is at grade to its surrounds.

Note how the fairway is at grade to its surrounds.

The Red Mountain serves as a distinctive backdrop for the approach at the sixth. It also has sacred significance for the Salt River Pima tribe that owns Coore & Crenshaw’s two other desert designs at Talking Stick. Coore is quick to acknowledge a Pinehurst influence for the abundance of short grass surrounding many of the greens.

The Red Mountain serves as a distinctive backdrop for the approach at the sixth. It also has sacred significance for the Salt River Pima tribe that owns Coore & Crenshaw’s two other desert designs at Talking Stick. Coore is quick to acknowledge a Pinehurst influence for the abundance of short grass surrounding many of the greens.

 

Eighth hole, 500 yards; Visually striking, this reachable par five features some of the deepest bunkers on the course that nicely balance the reward of reaching the green in two with a risk of being ensnared by one of these pits and forced to pitch out sideways. Many consider it their favorite hole on the course which is a special compliment for Coore & Crenshaw because of the hole’s little known genesis: Prior to construction, the last third of the hole housed a water treatment facility for the reservation. A new, larger one several miles away was already built so Coore & Crenshaw knew that this land was at their disposal.  Kudos to all that every trace of the industrial site has been eradicated with special credit reserved for Green Keeper Kreizenbeck and Francese for the manner in which they so faithfully restored the desert surrounds.

The early morning shadows provide insight as to the depth of the fairway bunkers that line the eighth fairway.

The early morning shadows provide insight as to the depth of the fairway bunkers that line the eighth fairway.

The large far right bunker is 125 yards from the green. It also serves as the aggressive target line off the tee for those hoping to reach this slight dogleg left green in two.

The large far right bunker is 125 yards from the green. It also serves as the aggressive target line off the tee for those hoping to reach this slight dogleg left green in two.

 

The eighth green complex is located in its own tranquil pocket on the property. Hard to believe it was once an industrial site!

The eighth green complex is located in its own tranquil pocket on the property. Hard to believe it was once an industrial site!


Ninth hole, 130 yards;
 His personal favorite stretch on the course, Coore finds the seventh through the tenth particularly engaging because none of the four holes derive their playing characteristics from length. The short, level ninth appears to be straightforward but the narrow, deep kidney shaped green is a surprisingly elusive target, especially in a cross breeze. This sort of hole – one that appears simple but isn’t – is a favorite of Coore & Crenshaw. Other such examples include the thirteenth at Chechessee Creek and the twelfth at Friar’s Head. As the golfer attempts the tricky recovery shot(s) across the skinny ninth green his game may devolve into a sad form of ping-pong. Though not proven, Coore thinks it likely that more double bogeys occur here with a pushed-up green than at the fifteenth, a one shotter that measures 125 yards longer but whose green gathers balls in from one side.

Even with but a short iron in hand, the golfer needs to take care when playing the ninth.

Even with but a short iron in hand, the golfer needs to take care when playing the ninth.

 

Cross winds, the kidney shaped green that bends right around the far bunker above, and the narrowness of the putting surface help make the ninth a testy proposition.

Cross winds, the kidney shaped green that bends right around the far bunker above, and the narrowness of the putting surface help make the ninth a testy proposition.

Tenth hole, 320 yards; Coore & Crenshaw adhere to several design principles (width off the tee, angles of play, enjoyment for all level of players, varied green complexes which includes a focus on the area of fairway that leads onto the putting surface) throughout all their projects. They adapt these principles to each of the varied environs in which they agree to work, rarely ever repeating any particular feature. One exception is the boomerang green. Iterations can be found at Sand Hills, Chechessee Creek, and Colorado GC. The eighth at Sand Hills was the original and for many is still the best. If so, the tenth is a close second as it has it all: A long view from the elevated tee which allows the golfer to spot the day’s hole location on the inverted U-shaped green prior to teeing off, a fifty yard long bunker of great beauty on the inside of this slight dogleg, and the most treacherous green complex at We-Ko-Pa. Eating into the middle of the green is a narrow scar bunker that is a friend to neither man nor beast. The deepest greenside bunkers on the course are left and back of the two-tiered green and compound the perils of an imprecise pitch. Front hole locations are hard while the back ones are harder!

Each player in a group of four may choose a different club off the tee. Anything from a driver to a utility club may be appropriate depending on how frisky the golfer is feeling and the day’s hole location.

Each player in a group of four may choose a different club off the tee. Anything from a driver to a utility club may be appropriate depending on how frisky the golfer is feeling and the day’s hole location.

 

Drives on a direct line to the green must carry this handsome bunker.

Drives on a direct line to the green must carry this handsome bunker.

This big hitter played the perfect tee shot to the right front hole location.

This big hitter played the perfect tee shot to the right front hole location.

Not the biggest or deepest on the course, this bunker is nonetheless the nastiest because of the numerous awkward stances and lies that it routinely serves up. The green's top tier is a scant 14 paces deep in spots with death over.

Not the biggest or deepest on the course, this bunker is nonetheless the nastiest because of the numerous awkward stances and lies that it routinely serves up. The green’s top tier is a scant 14 paces deep in spots with death over.

 

This golfer is but eight paces from the hole but has to aim well away because his backswing is compromised.

This golfer is but eight paces from the hole but has to aim well away because his backswing is compromised.

 

Over the green is no good either as the deepest greenside bunkers lurk here.

Over the green is no good either as the deepest greenside bunkers lurk here.

 

Continued →